Related Content The Peloponnesian War was a war fought in ancient Greece between Athens and Sparta—the two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece at the time (431 to 405 B.C.E.). However, rarely did the two sides fight each other alone. D. Law is based on social contract theory. The Reasons for the Peloponnesian War in More Detail The Peloponnesian War is the name given to the long series of conflicts between Athens and Sparta that lasted from 431 until 404 BC. Athens was hit by a devastating plague (arriving from Egypt via Persia) in 430 BCE and Sparta even postponed her annual invasion to avoid it. The Poteidaian’s asked for Sparta’s protection and received a promise of assistance. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. As far as short term causes, most historians agree that the attack on a Theban envoy made by the citizens of Plataea was what finally drove these two city-states to war. Greek Civilians became much more involved in, Map of the Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 BCE). Civilians became much more involved in warfare and entire citizen bodies could be wiped out as happened at Mykalessos in Boeotia. The Athenians, cajoled by Pericles, refused but the Spartans withheld from formally declaring war, perhaps due to their state of unreadiness for another long conflict. People elect leaders. Based on historical evidence, experts have divided this war into 3 different phases. It was fought in 5th century BC between the democratic Athens and the Peloponnesian League led by oligarchic Sparta.Lasting for more than a quarter of a century, it marked the end of the golden age of Greece. In 423/421 BCE a truce was called and a 50 year peace was agreed. Athens did, however, take the Spartan island of Kythera. Web. Challenges faced by natives during European exploration included A. What was the cause of the peloponnesian war? However, under Kleon and Nikias, the Athenians enjoyed a successful campaign in the Corinthian Gulf in 429 BCE and hopes for an early Spartan victory now seemed hopelessly ambitious. The war was followed by the Thirty Year’s Peace although in reality hostilities never fully ceased and broke out into full war once again from 431 BCE. The first phase is known as Archidamian War. The causes of the main Peloponnesian War need to be traced at least to the early 430s—the Great Gap period—although if Thucydides was right in his general explanation for the war, namely Spartan fear of Athenian expansion, the development of the entire… The Peloponnesians then used battering rams (embole) against the walls but the defenders once again thwarted the attackers by dropping large beams on chains to break the rams. The Peloponnesian War was a 30-yearlong battle between the Grecian cities of Athens and Sparta. The Corinthians were not backing down, following the war against the Corcyraeans, Corinthians spent time and money building new ships and trained rowers from the Peloponnese to fight against Corcyra. The third cause of the Peloponnesian War was likely due to Sparta's rebellion. Start studying Causes of the Peloponnesian War. The fundamental cause of the Peloponnesian War was А) Sparta's fear and jealousy of the power and wealth of Athens B Athens's fear of Sparta's growing empire in Greece Rome's attempt to expand into Greece Alexander the Great's conquest of the Persian Empire. First, the Peloponnesian forces used more aggressive tactics by blockading the town with a wooden palisade and building an earth ramp to compromise the walls. The war lasted 27 years, with a 6-year truce in the middle, and ended with Athens' surrender in 404 BC. What was the cause of the peloponnesian war? © 2021 Education Strings, All rights reserved. The Peloponnesian War was brought about by the rivalry that existed between Athens and Sparta and provoked by Spartan allies who felt threatened by Athens’ growth. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. A. Greeks sought revenge for the persian wars. The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Sparta seems to have been particularly alarmed at the growing power of Athens, able to build an ever-bigger fleet of ships thanks to tributes from its allies and dependants. The League, at its greatest size was composed of over 300 members who paid tribute to Athens, the strongest naval power in Greece, in the form of either ships or money in return for Athenian protection against a perceived threat from Persian and perhaps also Mediterranean pirates. Peloponnesian War reshaped the ancient Greek world. War really wouldn't have been possible at all if Sparta had not risen to challenge Athenian hegemony. Caused by the growing tension between Athens and Sparta, it came and left, leaving only destruction in its wake. Citizens have no voice in their government. This period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing … Causes of Peloponnesian War. But before going into all the details, here are the main points to remember: Who Fought in the Peloponnesian War? PELOPONNESIAN WAR, in Greek history, the name given specially to the struggle between Athens at the head of the Delian League and the confederacy of which Sparta was the leading power.' In addition, Sparta was also concerned that inaction would push the other major Greek power, Corinth, to side with Athens. 0. Now unable to man another fleet, with the Delian League disbanded and Athens itself under siege, the Athenians had no option but to sue for peace. It had transformed itself during and after the Persian Wars and became a major trading and maritime power. Peloponnesian War. In 428 BCE Athens ruthlessly crushed a revolt on Lesbos involving Mytilene and in 427 the fall of Plataea was followed by a civil war on Kerkyra (Corfu) and a failed Athenian attempt to support Leontinoi in Sicily. Greek Hoplites [Artist's Impression]by The Creative Assembly (Copyright). Such was the funeral that took place during this winter, with which the first year of the war came to an end. of History, US Military Academy (CC BY-SA). How does Stalin use bandwagon argument in his speech? In 415 BCE Athenian general Alcibiades was the mastermind behind the invasion of Sicily, the largest operation of the entire war. "Peloponnesian War." There were some territorial concessions on both sides but principally the situation returned to the pre-war status quo. Cartwright, Mark. 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